To answer this question, the Turing Test of 1950 as revealed in the Computing Machinery and Intelligence had a man and a woman as participants. One of these 2 is the computer. The purpose of the interrogation is to determine if the human being can identify which of the couple was the man and which was the woman.
Let us say that the machine takes the part of the woman in this case. So we have 3 parties here; the man, the woman and the tester who can either be a male or a female. The tester stays in a room separate from the 2. Remember that the tester must be able to pinpoint which is the man and the woman.
He can only identify the man as X and the woman as Y. At the end of the experiment, he blundered by saying either X is A, and Y is B. The tester can ask X and Y any kind of questions preferably by a written note and thru a computer monitor to keep everything secret. This interrogation becomes the basis if he can identify which of A and B is the machine.
If the tester cannot exactly tell the difference between the computer and the human being then, the intelligence of the machine could match that of the human being. Based on this theory, Turing presented a prediction that in 50 years, computers can be programmed to play the same test game and that the interrogation can’t have 70% chance of precise identification after 5 minutes of trials.
Therefore, do computers have the ability to think?
Turing refused to answer this believing that the question was not absolute. He believed that in order to answer this question, the machine must be able to prove it by its display of performance instead of saying either yes or no. Turing did not like to define the words “computer” or “machine” or think in the ordinary sense.
He wanted to introduce a new way of defining these words into something else. He believed that, in order to avoid controversy and arguments about what the mind can do or what the machine can do, he presented the idea of analyzing a machine’s mental capacity by comparing its intelligence with a human being.
In this process, he argued that if a machine can think and communicate like a human being, has the knowledge and intelligence of a human being, therefore, it can also be made as a human being – just like a robot.