Alexander the Great was a king of Macedon a state in the north eastern region of Greece, and by the age of thirty was the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history, stretching from the Ionian sea to the Himalaya. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time.
Alexander earned the epithet “the Great” due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. He is known to have never lost a battle, despite being constantly outnumbered in the many battles he fought. This success was due to a successful use of terrain, mastery of phalanx and cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and particularly the ability to inspire fierce loyalty among his troops. The Macedonian phalanx, armed with the sarissa, a spear six meters in length, had been developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training, and Alexander used its speed and maneuverability to great effect against the larger but more disparate Persian forces. Alexander also recognized the potential for disunity among his diverse army, which had different language and weapons, and overcame it by being personally involved in the action, in the manner of a Macedonian king.